PHP Interview Questions and Answers for Fresher
What is PHP?
PHP is a server-side scripting language commonly used for web applications. PHP has many frameworks and cms for creating websites. Even a non-technical person can create sites using its CMS.WordPress,osCommerce are the famous CMS of PHP.It is also an object-oriented programming language like java, C-sharp, etc.It is very easy for learning
What is the use of “echo” in PHP?
It is used to print a data in the webpage, Example: <?php echo ‘Car insurance’; ?>, The following code print the text in the webpage
How to include a file to a PHP page?
We can include a file using “include() ” or “require()” function with file path as its parameter.
What’s the difference between include and require?
If the file is not found by require(), it will cause a fatal error and halt the execution of the script. If the file is not found by include(), a warning will be issued, but execution will continue.
require_once(), require(), include().What is difference between them?
require() includes and evaluates a specific file, while require_once() does that only if it has not been included before (on the same page). So, require_once() is recommended to use when you want to include a file where you have a lot of functions for example. This way you make sure you don’t include the file more times and you will not get the “function re-declared” error.
Differences between GET and POST methods?
We can send 1024 bytes using the GET method but POST method can transfer a large amount of data and POST is the secure method than the GET method.
How to declare an array in PHP?
Eg : var $arr = array(‘apple’, ‘grape’, ‘lemon’);
What is the use of ‘print’ in PHP?
This is not actually a real function, It is a language construct. So you can use without parentheses with its argument list.
Example print(‘PHP Interview questions’);
What is the use of in_array() function in PHP?
in_array used to checks if a value exists in an array
What is the use of count() function in PHP?
count() is used to count all elements in an array or something in an object
What’s the difference between include and require?
It’s how they handle failures. If the file is not found by require(), it will cause a fatal error and halt the execution of the script. If the file is not found by include(), a warning will be issued, but execution will continue.
What is the difference between Session and Cookie?
The main difference between sessions and cookies is that sessions are stored on the server, and cookies are stored on the user’s computers in the text file format. Cookies can not hold multiple variables, But Session can hold multiple variables. We can set expiry for a cookie, The session only remains active as long as the browser is open. Users do not have access to the data you stored in Session, Since it is stored in the server.The session is mainly used for login/logout purpose while cookies using for user activity tracking
How to set cookies in PHP?
Setcookie(“sample”, “ram”, time()+3600);
How to Retrieve a Cookie Value?
eg : echo $_COOKIE[“user”];
How to create a session? How to set a value in session? How to Remove data from a session?
Create session : session_start();
Set value into session : $_SESSION[‘USER_ID’]=1;
Remove data from a session : unset($_SESSION[‘USER_ID’];
what types of loops exist in php?
for,while,do while and foreach (NB: You should learn its usage)
How to create a mysql connection?
How to select a database?
How to execute an SQL query? How to fetch its result?
$my_qry = mysqli_query($con"SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `u_id`='1'; ");
$result = mysqli_fetch_array($my_qry);
Write a program using while loop
$my_qry = mysqli_query($con,"SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `u_id`='1'; ");
while($result = mysqli_fetch_array($my_qry))
How we can retrieve the data in the result set of MySQL using PHP?
What is the use of the explode() function ?
Syntax : array explode ( string $delimiter , string $string [, int $limit ] );
This function breaks a string into an array. Each of the array elements is a substring of string formed by splitting it on boundaries formed by the string delimiter.
What is the difference between explode() and split() functions?
Split function splits the string into array by regular expression. Explode splits a string into array by string.
What is the use of mysql_real_escape_string() function?
It is used to escapes special characters in a string for use in an SQL statement
Write down the code to save an uploaded file in PHP.
if ($_FILES["file"]["error"] == 0)
"upload/" . $_FILES["file"]["name"]);
echo "Stored in: " . "upload/" . $_FILES["file"]["name"];
How to create a text file in PHP?
$filename = “/home/user/guest/newfile.txt”;
$file = fopen( $filename, "w" );
if( $file == false )
echo ( "Error in opening new file" ); exit();
fwrite( $file, "This is a simple testn" );
fclose( $file );
How to strip whitespace (or other characters) from the beginning and end of a string?
The trim() function removes whitespaces or other predefined characters from both sides of a string.
What is the use of the header() function in PHP?
The header() function sends a raw HTTP header to a client browser. Remember that this function must be called before sending the actual output. For example, You do not print any HTML element before using this function.
How to redirect a page in PHP?
The following code can be used for it, header(“Location:index.php”);
How to stop the execution of a PHP script?
exit() function is used to stop the execution of a page
How to set a page as a home page in a PHP based site?
index.php is the default name of the home page in PHP based sites
How to find the length of a string?
strlen() function used to find the length of a string
what is the use of rand() in PHP?
It is used to generate random numbers. If called without the arguments it returns a pseudo-random integer between 0 and getrandmax(). If you want a random number between 6 and 12 (inclusive), for example, use rand(6, 12). This function does not generate cryptographically safe values, and should not be used for cryptographic uses. If you want a cryptographically secure value, consider using openssl_random_pseudo_bytes() instead.
what is the use of isset() in PHP?
This function is used to determine if a variable is set and is not NULL
What is the difference between mysql_fetch_array() and mysql_fetch_assoc() ?mysql_fetch_assoc function Fetch a result row as an associative array, Whilemysql_fetch_array() fetches an associative array, a numeric array, or both
What is mean by an associative array?
Associative arrays are arrays that use string keys is called associative arrays.
What is the importance of “method” attribute in a HTML form?
“method” attribute determines how to send the form-data into the server. There are two methods, get and post. The default method is to get. This sends the form information by appending it on the URL. Information sent from a form with the POST method is invisible to others and has no limits on the amount of information to send.
What is the importance of the “action” attribute in an HTML form?
The action attribute determines where to send the form-data in the form of submission.
What is the use of “enctype” attribute in an HTML form?
The enctype attribute determines how the form-data should be encoded when submitting it to the server. We need to set enctype as “multipart/form-data” when we are using a form for uploading files
How to create an array of a group of items inside an HTML form?
We can create input fields with the same name for “name” attribute with squire bracket at the end of the name attribute, It passes data as an array to PHP.
For instance :
<input name="MyArray" /> <input name="MyArray" /> <input name="MyArray" /> <input name="MyArray" />
Define Object-Oriented Methodology
Object orientation is a software/Web development methodology that is based on the modeling of a real-world system. An object is the core concept involved in the object orientation. An object is a copy of the real-world entity. An object-oriented model is a collection of objects and its inter-relationships
How do you define a constant?
Using define() directive, like define (“MYCONSTANT”,150)
How send email using PHP?
To send email using PHP, you use the mail() function. This mail() function accepts 5 parameters as follows (the last 2 are optional). You need a web server, you can’t send email from localhost. eg : mail($to,$subject,$message,$headers);
How to find the current date and time?
The date() function provides you with a means of retrieving the current date and time, applying the format integer parameters indicated in your script to the timestamp provided or the current local time if no timestamp is given. In simplified terms, passing a time parameter is optional – if you don’t, the current timestamp will be used.
Difference between mysql_connect and mysql_pconnect?
There is a good page in the PHP manual on the subject, in short mysql_pconnect() makes a persistent connection to the database which means a SQL link that does not close when the execution of your script ends. mysql_connect()provides only for the database new connection while using mysql_pconnect, the function would first try to find a (persistent) link that’s already open with the same host, username and password. If one is found, an identifier for it will be returned instead of opening a new connection… the connection to the SQL server will not be closed when the execution of the script ends. Instead, the link will remain open for future use.
What is the use of “ksort” in PHP?
It is used to sort an array by key in reverse order.
What is the difference between $var and $$var?
They are both variables. But $var is a variable with a fixed name. $$var is a variable whose name is stored in $var. For example, if $var contains “message”, $$var is the same as $message.
What are the encryption techniques in PHPMD5
PHP implements the MD5 hash algorithm using the md5 function,
eg : $encrypted_text = md5 ($msg);
mcrypt_encrypt :- string mcrypt_encrypt ( string $cipher , string $key , string $data , string $mode [, string $iv ]);
Encrypts plaintext with given parameters
What is the use of the function htmlentities?
htmlentities Convert all applicable characters to HTML entities This function is identical to htmlspecialchars() in all ways, except with htmlentities(), all characters which have an HTML character entity equivalents are translated into these entities.
How to delete a file from the system
Unlink() deletes the given file from the file system.
How to get the value of current session id?
session_id() function returns the session id for the current session.
What are the differences between mysql_fetch_array(), mysql_fetch_object(), mysql_fetch_row()?
Mysql_fetch_array Fetch a result row as an associative array, a numeric array, or both.
mysql_fetch_object ( resource result ) Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row and moves the internal data pointer ahead. Returns an object with properties that correspond to the fetched row, or FALSE if there are no more rows
mysql_fetch_row() fetches one row of data from the result associated with the specified result identifier. The row is returned as an array. Each result column is stored in an array offset, starting at offset 0.
What are the different types of errors in PHP?
Here are three basic types of runtime errors in PHP:
1. Notices: These are trivial, non-critical errors that PHP encounters while executing a script – for example, accessing a variable that has not yet been defined. By default, such errors are not displayed to the user at all – although you can change this default behavior.
2. Warnings: These are more serious errors – for example, attempting to include() a file that does not exist. By default, these errors are displayed to the user, but they do not result in script termination.
3. Fatal errors: These are critical errors – for example, instantiating an object of a non-existent class, or calling a non-existent function. These errors cause the immediate termination of the script, and PHP’s default behavior is to display them to the user when they take place.
what is SQL injection?
SQL injection is a malicious code injection technique. It exploiting SQL vulnerabilities in Web applications
What is x+ mode in fopen() used for?
Read/Write. Creates a new file. Returns FALSE and an error if the file already exists
What is PEAR?
PEAR is a framework and distribution system for reusable PHP components. The project seeks to provide a structured library of code, maintain a system for distributing code and for managing code packages, and promote a standard coding style.PEAR is broken into three classes: PEAR Core Components, PEAR Packages, and PECL Packages. The Core Components include the base classes of PEAR and PEAR_Error, along with database, HTTP, logging, and e-mailing functions. The PEAR Packages include functionality providing for authentication, networking, and file system features, as well as tools for working with XML and HTML templates.
Distinguish between urlencode and urldecode?
This method is best when encode a string to use in a query part of a URL. it returns a string in which all non-alphanumeric characters except -_. have replaced with a percentage(%) sign. the urldecode->Decodes URL to encode the string as any %and other symbols are decoded by the use of the urldecode() function.
What are the different errors in PHP?
In PHP, there are three types of runtime errors, they are:
These are important errors. Example: When we try to include () file which is not available. These errors are shown to the user by default but they will not result in ending the script.
These errors are non-critical and trivial errors that come across while executing the script in PHP. Example: trying to gain access to the variable which is not defined. These errors are not showed to the users by default even if the default behavior is changed.
These are critical errors. Example: instantiating an object of a class that does not exist or a non-existent function is called. These errors result in termination of the script immediately and default behavior of PHP is shown to them when they take place. Twelve different error types are used to represent these variations internally.