How to make SEO friendly url using htaccess

In previous tutorial we learned about what is .htaccess. In this tutorial I will explain how to make SEO friendly url using htaccess.
Ex 1 :
https://phpgurukul.com/books.php?bookName=php  using  htaccess  url will be written like this https://phpgurukul.com/php
You can do this using code given below in htaccess file :

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^([^/\.]+)/?$ books.php?bookName=$1

Ex 2 :
https://phpgurukul.com/books.php?bookName=php&&chapter=array   using  htaccess  url will be written like
https://phpgurukul.com/php/array
You can get by using code in htaccess file given below :

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^([^/\.]+)/([^/\.]+)?$ books.php?bookName=$1&chapter=$2

Ex 3 :
https://phpgurukul.com/books.php?bookName=2&&chapter=5 using  htaccess  url will be written like
https://phpgurukul.com/php/2/array/5
You can get by using code in htaccess file given below :

RewriteEngine on
RewriteRule product/catName/(.*)/bookName/(.*)/books.php?bookName=$1&chapter=$2

we can handle this url in other way like this https://phpgurukul.com/books-php-2-array-5.html

RewriteEngine on
RewriteRule product-catName-(.*)-bookName-(.*)\.html$ books.php?bookName=$1&chapter=$2